*

AN INTERNATIONAL

DAILY NEWSPAPER

VOLUME 48 NO. 254

RIGHT 1956 BY THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PUBLISHING SOCIETY

os

BOSTON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 1956

** ATLANTIC EDITION

FIVE CENTS A COPY

‘Suez Enters New Phase

By Henry S. Hayward

Chief of the London News Bureau of The Christian Science Monitor

Lendon

With the ending of the 18-power London conference on the Suez crisis several important

points have been clarified.

One is that the dispute is entering a new phase, a phase of further negotiation with Presi-

dent Nasser—somehow.

Another problem now is certain to be referred to the United Nations in the near future.

A third factor is that there is something less than complete accord among 18 nations, par- ticularly among the French, for the new Suez Canal Users’ Association (now called SCUA) which the London parley declared its intent to establish before it adjourned Sept. 21.

French Foreign Minister Christian Pineau in a surprise move said he could not adhere to

the declaration at the outset, thereby at least temporarily sundering Western Big Three |

unity on the SCUA.

His complaint was that the document is not str

fees to the association rather than to Egypt.

French criticism is believed to be a last-ditch stand for the original strong British-Frenc

viewpoint which now has been sharply modified by conference developments.

Membership in Doubt

Meanwhile, the first organi-

zational meeting of the SCUA

is scheduled to be held here Oct. 1, It may not be known until then how many of. the

18 are willing to adhere to the |

new agreement.

United States Secretary State John Foster Dulies, how- ever, committed the United States to membership immedi-

io ~ately..So.did- Selwyn. .Lioyd. for

Britain.

American, German, and Ital- |

cL

|

. ict enough in forcing payment of canal |

. , Stevenson Opens

Farm Belt Foray

By the Associated Press

expected present a detailed outline of his farm program for this speech and he is also said te be prepared to hit hard at the agricultural policies of the Eisenhower administration in the struggle between Demo- crats and Republicans for the

h' important farm belt vote.

'

| LOE ¥ a 4 ~

of |

ian ships still are paying canal | dues to Egypt—doubtless a fac-|

tor in the French complaint but Mr. Dulles indicated he would take steps to see that American shipping in the near future commences to pay dues to the SCUA.

Following the conference the British spokesman stated, “In the view of the British Govern- ment the time

a

is rapidly ap- |

proaching when recourse should |

be had to the United Nations.” The 18 nations agreed in the

final announcement that UN re- |

Mayflower II Revives Past

course should be sought “when- ever it seems that this would facilitate a. settlement.”

Opinion here is that this step ‘will be taken in October soon after the SCUA is established and operating.

'

In the long final session of | conference most delegations de- | clined to commit themselves to | the SCUA without consulting |

their governments.

[The French Cabinet has de- cided to go ahead and partici- pate in a Suez Canal Users’ As- sociation, the Associated Press reported from Paris. Sept. 22.j

Two Documents The parley produced

United Press

Mayflower II Adheres to Authentic Tooling and Techniques

By John Allan May

Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor backing, from private individu- “And I jolly well will.” He sent

Brixham, England Mayflower II was launched at

| eight o’clock this morning in the Devon fishing port of Brixham.

The ship, replica of the May- flower that carried the Pilgrims

| to America 336 years ago, was

two 'ed one of Britain’s decorations

launched by Reis L. Leming, former American airman award-

documents. One accepted unani-/ for acts of gallantry, the George

mously was a general

state-'| Medal, for saving 22 persons in

ment. It referred to the un-/ the Norfolk floods of 1953.

successful Menzies mission to!

The Mayflower, a gift from

Cairo and regretted Egypt did) the people of Britain to the peo- not accept the 18-power pro-| ple of the United States, is not a

posal _counterpro ls.

It reiterated confidence the August proposal but termed the Egyptian proposal of Sept. 10 “too imprecise to afford a useful basis for discussion.” It announced establishment of the SCUA and the likelihood of UN recourse.

It added that the 18 nations will. continue to consult and

geek. peaceful solution “in con-.

formity with the principles of justice and international law” and the UN Charter.

The second document, ac- cepted on the spot only by Britain and the United States, was the SCUA declaration.

Its membership can include any of 18 powers; others who wish to adhere and whose ships use the canal to the extent of 1,000,000 net tons a year or whose trade through the canal is 50 per cent of its total trade (a- restriction which rules out, for example, the Soviet Union), or others eligible when and if membership requirements are reduced later (an apparent escape clause by which the Soviet Union or other nations might be admitted).

Role Outlined

not mandatory. It will have power to receive dues and fees and hold disputed money in trust and pay Egypt a fair share. It will note “any significant devel- opments affecting use or nonuse of the canal.”

It will assist in practical prob- lems if the canal fails to serve its purpose and will study means

to reduce dependence on the | to the Maldive Islands southwest of Ceylon to sail in the great

Suez waterway. And it will facilitate any pro- visional UN solution.

council of members with an executive group and administra- tor, The Suez moves have become ae a Dulles show in two mdon emergency conferences and he has earned acclaim from

he “British and several others

for the “masterful manner in -which he has picked his way through the thicket of conflict- ing interests.” Jt is pointed out he had to bal- _ance strong Anglo-French opin- ions on the one side with the need to retain support from the Afro-Asian nations unwilling to bring direct military or economic ' pressure on Egypt.

Arab Big Three chiefs meet:

~~ a

Inside Reading:

Crime Probing Not Pleasant Job Page 2

% t a) is? ae parks ; , Fai Sy a 2 a * 4 . . . ? me » = A ® ;

of Aug. 23 or make) model, not an«a

|maintain the lines and ways of To do all this it will form a/| Elizabethan time. He says that

= S i : el nck lSeeartpidah oan’ nema ts CNPP RURe REND Pa AN as SR Sth RITES 5 gray NN BIRR Ree LH ON La

| landmark for all time.

imation,

sn | not a sham but the feal thing.

She has been buijlt like the original, of similar great oaks, to a similar design, With similar tools and similar skill. Even the ropes are of soft l7th century

| cordage.

‘Radio Sole Modern Gear

She is to be sailed by Britons to the United States next spring with no modern gear except the now compulsory radio—an ad- venture with only one exact parallel—a dramatic symbol of a common heritage and an unde-

feated friendship.

The Mayflower probably. will | arrive at Plymouth, Mass., on May 30 next year after a voy-| age lasting two months. Then, | having “shown the flag” in. vari- ous northern American ports, | including New York, the May- | flower is to be formally handed over to Plimoth Plantation, Inc.., in November and thereafter is to lie at Plymouth as a historic

Captain on the voyage is to be Alan Villiers, Australian | mariner who has devoted his |

He says, happily, that the |

“grim.” He is a former Cape} Horn sailor, and he is the only person aboard who has any actual idea of how the ship will sail. For nobody else in the world has sailed such Eliza- bethan galleons. The West said good-by to them 300 years ago,

Captain Villiers, however, has recently made a special voyage

Maldive galleons. These. still

at sea they are “grim.”

From -the point of view of safety and even of comfort, how- ever, this trip in 1957 will be an improvement on that of 1620. This Mayflower is a sound, new | vessel. The first Mayflower prob-|

‘ably had’ been ‘around for 60 |

years before she was chartered | by the Pilgrims, and she was) broken up four years later, This Mayfiower’s crew will have the advantage .of a knowledge of Atlantic winds and currents that the first could not have. This Mayflower will carry probably but 40 people. The first carried some 102 Pilgrims,

Gesture of Friendship But, although haps more comfortable, Mayflower II is in every other way authentic, It was this authenticity, de- manded by the o tor of the project, Warwick lIton, that

made the whole thing seem so | farmer’

unlikely when he first proposed

it in 1946, = Mr. Charlton, a professional who had

. eee : : se _. Sly te Nr Mh pret oR ry ~~ re , ** . set }

any backing. When he got

als like Randolph Churchill and Felix Fenton and from thou- sands of members of the public and from industrial firms, he was told he would never get a de- signer. Plimoth Plantation, Inc., offered him the plans and serv- ices of William A. Baker, of Hingham, Mass., who already was planning a reconstruction for them.

Having obtained a designer, Mr. Chariton was told he never would get a builder. It was said that no one in this country (or indeed in any other) knew how to build an authentic Elizabethan galleon. When Mrs. Stuart Up- ham, wife of a Brixham ship- builder saw this statement in print in a magazine, she showed it to her husband and retired to wait for the explosion.

“T can,so build it!” Mr. Upham said, or words to that effect.

a telegram to Mr. Charlton say- ing that Brixham shipwrights

certainly could build such a |

vessel.

Adzes, shipwright’s axes with curved shafts, have done most of the work on the great timbers. The tree for the main beam when felled was 116 cubic feet. When worked there were 60 cubic feet left. The oak that made the keel is exactly as old as the firm of Uphams—130 years.

The masts

have come from

Canada, because no tall timbers|we have a _ candidate against

now grow in Great Britain. The flax sails come from Scotland. The British rope industry has provided special soft cordage as a gift. Navigational instruments of the period have been supplied by Kelvin & Hughes, Ltd., one of the most ancient marine in- strument firms in the world.

Eisenhower Campaign Lifted -

Moines

President Eisenhower’s mount- ing campaign for reelection suddenly soared to an impres- sive peak here as he concluded a barnstorming tour in the na- tion’s Farm Belt before a roar- ing, record crowd in Des Moines. The spectacular demonstra- tion for Mr, Eisenhower, ac- cording to veteran White House correspondents, probably matched in enthusiasm, if not in numbers of people, anything he has experienced since he be- came a presidential candidate in 1952,

A comparison has yet to be made between Mr, Eisenhower's warm reception, unexampled for any person or event here as far as anyone remembers, and the welcome to be ac- corded Mr. Stevenson. It now is the Democratic candidate's turn, following Mr. Eisenhower to speak at the National Plow- ing Association contests at Col- fax, near Newton, east of here.

By Max K. Gilstrap Chief of the Central News Bureau of The Christian Science Monitor

The Eisenhower magic of ap- peal on an estimated 75,000 tra- ditionally reserved lowans put a noisy, optimistic climax to his farm visit that is expected to bolster his supporters across the nation as nothing else has in the present campaign.

The President had already been reassured that Iowans who gave him a victory of landslide proportions in 1952 still “like Ike”—however they may vote in 1956. An estimated 100,000 peo- ple had cheered him along the roads and in towns as he took Mrs. Eisenhower on a visit to Boone, where she was born. At the plowing contests at Colfax a crowd of 80,000 somewhat taci- tur farmers was on hand to hear him, in a rolling hill setting resembling a Grant Wood paint- ing.

But as the President continued his trip and neared his final

stop at Des Moines, he appeared to sense something unusual in the growing crowds. He became more animated as he stood in his specially built car. He waved more. He beckoned Mrs. Eisen- hower to stand with him as they reached the center of the city. Here shouting, waving lowans surged’ forward, leaving a hnar- row lane for the slow-moving motorcade, while confetti and streamers showered down. from windows above. It was Broad- way in miniature.

Eisenhowers Buoyed

At the airport, Mr, Eisenhow- er, flushed with pleasure, told assembled Republican leaders, precinct workers, and a special! group of weekly-newspaper edi- tors: “Mrs. Eisennower and I witnessed a turnout that we have certainly never scen in a

Massachusetts is in the process of becoming the only state ever to return to Wash- ington a congressman who has served a jail term while in office.

Oddly. it is not at all certain that even the voters of Repre- | sentative Thomas J, Lane’s dis- trict know exactly why and how this is being accomplished.

If you were to ask the 25,812 ‘voters why they chose in the Democratic primary a man who had been released from prison

| four-month term for evasion of | $38,542 in income taxes, most |of them probably would reply: '“Why, it is because we like Tommy.”

Opposition Split

| Jf you were to ask the 34,- 010 (the majority of those who \voted) who split their votes among four other primary elec- ition - candidates, the average | probably would respond: “Lane ‘was a sure thing from the start | because we did not unite on one opposition candidate.”

| And almost any Republican ‘would admit dejectedly; “Yes,

Lane in the November election, but he is not strong and this district has been overwhelming- ly Democratic for decades. Lane will win despite the jail sen- tence.” .

There is, of course, the remote possibility that Congress would refuse to seat Mr. Lane, but it

13 days earlier after serving a}

By Courtney R. Sheldon

New England Editor of The Christian Science Monito

SEE ae . . otetut

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at ' “2 .

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. waren TON .

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.

ne a at, lt ¥ *. Russell H. Lenz, Chief Cartographer

Gerrymandered Seventh

Massachusetts Republicans had no idea in 1941 when they further concentrated Demo- cratic areas in the seventh congressional district that they were depriving themselves of an opportunity to gain a con- gressional seat in 1956. The strung-out shape of the dis- trict also makes it difficult for a newcomer challenger of either party te make himself known.

is little discussed in New Eng- land and not taken seriously when it is.

The story of the Lane en- trenchment is not wholly that of

>

By Nate White

US. Displays Economic Sinews

Business and Financial Editor of The Christian Science Monitor

Sinews of the United States’ economic strength

are not in hiding.

If ever a nation functioned in the full glare of the world spotlight it is the United States. Every economic fact about the country is quickly re- criticized. The man in the street is liable to mention the GNP, It’s now a television must for politicians to talk about the GNP (see footnote). The economic system subject to the fastest reporting, the most care- ful checking and evaluating ever devised.

It simply is not possible for the United States to function economically ‘in the dark.

This being the case, what are the economic career to sail. Captain Villiers | sinews? Why all this talk about rising prices,

sees this Mayflower command credit restraint, inflation, and marginal eco- ‘as the greatest achievement of |

his career. The SCUA is voluntary and | will make services available but |

ported, analyzed,

nomic areas? The sinews are these:

: An industrial system which is so strong that actual voyage is likely to be | it doesn’t know how to rein itself in.

A demand for products so strong that the:in- dustrial system is forced to expand to provide

them.

A labor force so fully employed that additional workers must continually come into being to keep

it supplied.

A consumer willingness to spend, but to spend to save by the purchase of houses and capital

goods on payment systems.

An income which continues to rise. A confidence in itself and its way of doing

things.

These sinews are exercised daily by the United States atop a plateau far above the dead level of economic subsistence. It is a plateau of plenty.

When discussions of econdmic problems occur they center on problems which occur on this

lateau— at the highest economic . level the nited States has ever reached. On this high plateau, economic problems became problems of degree and not necessarily problems of basic

Boston since then.

lion dollars. is

farmer and the

United States.

last December, a rise in June, and a subsidence

Net farm income, however, is not as disturb- ing as the indices would say. Told in terms of 1955 dollar prices, net farm income In 1939 was 1.584 billion dollars. In 1950 it was 2.688 billion dollars. In 1953 it was 2.557 billions, last year 2.336 billions, and for the first two quarters of this year it was averaging out above 2.3 bil-

When politicians discuss the farm problem, and newspapermen write about farm unrest and dis- content the subject is very real, both to the

commentator. It may have deep

political meaning. But the Communist world .can take cold comfort in a farm economy operating ata plateau such as that which exists in the

It’s a matter of degree. The stock market is another case in point.

Those who watch the market from day to day get into a habit of worrying about what certain | stocks. did that day. But where are the Dow- Jones averages? They are up there on that pla-

teau, hovering between the high 480’s and 500.

stock prices 44

Last year at this time they were hovering con- siderably lower. The SEC composite index put |

points above a year ago for the

week ending Sept. 14, 116.8 points above 1954, and 155.3 points above 1953.

Economic Indicators This is a high market and changes in the mar-

ket are at an altitude or plateau which is breath-

dicates that the

taking. Of course, it is only a plateau to those who started in the market several years ago. The new investor must bide his time. The record in-

long-range trend is always up.

The United States’ economic gain has beep on a path rolling gently upward and forward since 1950. The Consumer’s disposable income has steadily but gently moved upward. So have his savings and his expenditures, :

The GNP has moved in a similar direction,

‘always gently upward and forward.

Trend of the Economy

to the Korean

An unemployed person represents a problem of basic magnitude to himself. But in a nation of 66.8 million employed persons and unemploy- ment of 2.9 million the problem quickly becomes

one of economic degree.

Of course, a farmer could argue that he had not yet climbed up to the plateau, that he was still plowing furrows in a valley considerably below the peak. Nevertheless, even the farmer is on

the economic plateau.

The index of farmer's prices—the prices he re- ceives for his goods—usually starts with an even 1910-1914. In the year 1939, the index was 95—below. the 1910-1914 ia period

moved up.

of

Corporate profits, dividend payments, a distributed profits—reflecting the changes due j tongel, is similar in some aspects |

and un-

war and changes in corporate

tax rates—have made some abrupt shifts, but since 1953 the trend has been sharply upward. Expenditures for new plant and equipment have moved gently upward until a tiny valley was reached last year. Since then the ascent from this gentle dip has been sharp and bold. This is a key sinew in the economy of today. Hourly earnings,

weekly earnings have

The chart world is jagged in spots. Housing ha set a disturbing variation—but even this variation is at a plateau level, Total nonfarm houses begun in 1949 numbered 1.025 million. They jumped to 1.127 million in 1952 and 1.328 million last year. The rate this year is about 1.1 million. New credi this OB gnc upward in

year.

may change

t 1957 and the remainder

These are the economic indicators of the United

States. are the work of Bocacht it Weeithate’ hocinke

Committee of indicators come from all of the

the President's for Congress.

States Government.

up there on that plateau. the sum of all goods and

ia as

voter indifference to or rejection \of standards which. customarily | apply throughout most of the rest of the United States, It be- \gins back in 1942 when Mr. Lane _became heir to the seat held by ithe Connery brothers, William |and Lawrence, since 1923,

Gerrymander Switch

In the Connery era, the sev-

enth district had been certain ‘Democratic, but in 1941 the Re- \publicans who controlled the state government redistricted .and made the district even more | Democratic than before,- They |took out four Republican towns, in the net, and added areas which normally voted Demo- | cratic, The GOP regarded the seventh ‘district as too Democratic to reclaim. They felt they could use ‘some of the Republican wotes | then in the seventh to better ad- |\vantage by shifting them to ‘neighboring districts. In like | manner, nearby Democratic areas were shifted into the seventh.

This standard political ma- neuver is better known as gerry- /mandering, having derived its name from Governor Gerry of Massachusetts whose Legislature carved out in 1812 the dragon- like contour of the sixth district, a-next door neighbor of the seventh. | The minority Republicans left in the seventh have long re-

‘signed themselves to Democratic ,

city anywhere near this size be-

2 | Lane Aided by Gerrymander

= ;

for he represents a dis- trict whose mills and factories have not always enjoyed . the prosperity of adjoining areas.

Gerrymandering and_ split- vote factors aside,:Mr. Lane’s triumph is directly attributable to the political climate of the seventh district. The suggestion that there was something in- discreet about mentioning Mr. Lane’s jail record took root firmly.

Most of his opponents were afraid of the so-called “sym- pathy vote” for Mr;Lane; After all, it was argued, the man has served his sentence, why perse- cute him further? Who likes to pay taxes, anyway?

In neighboring Boston, Boston Herald (R) raised voice trying to reverse pointedly raising the question of whether lawmakers should be recruited from among those who had broken the law. This editorial . was reprinted by some of the candidates.

One of Mr. Lane’s opponents, Pasquale Caggiano, did hit him quite hard on the jail issue. By so doing, he tended to unite the many voters of Irish . back- ground behind Mr. Lane. There is hard political between the Italians and the Irish in the Lawrence area of the district, the most populous. The Irish vote is dominant,

the its

this,

Decisive Factor

The cohesiveness of Irish voters is still often a decisive political factor despite the dim- ming of memories of the days when the Irish first came to New England shores and turned to government and politics _for careers when they were coldly shut out of other avenues for advancement. The Irish feel they have good reason to be sympa- thetic wiih the underdog.

The “sympathy vote” aspect and “vindication by the voters” have been common enough in Massachusetts politics to arouse both local and national comment from time to time. Former Mayor James Michael] Curley of Boston had two. convictions on his record, but seemed, in the over-all, to have suffered little loss of popularity as a direct re- sult.

This contrasts directly with elsewhere in the United States where former Representative J. Parnell Thomas (R) of New Jer- sey, was defeated in a primary after beMfg jailed for payroll padding and accepting kick- backs; Representative Ernest K. Bramblett (R) of California avoided the issue by not at- tempting reelection after being convicted for accepting salary kickbacks; and former Repre- sentative Andrew J. May de- clined to seek reelection after being convicted of wartime fraud.

Mr. Lane only found it nec- essary to give up his salary for the period he was in jail. His

staff carried on his duties—and |

his campaign—for him.

competition |

By Giant Des Moines Turnout

fore in our lives. We are deepl¥ grateful.”

The . effect of this kind of Eisenhower campaigning, in which his prestige as President, his personal popularity, and in- formal, off-the-cuff chats are substituted for the usual major campaign addresses has yet to be tested at the polls in Novem- ber.

In spite of the rousing re- sponse in Des Moines, the effect was not all, by any means, on te credit side of the GOP can- didate’s political ledger. In a state which prides itself as the

‘“Mation’s farm capital, many anxious farmers, caught in the cost-price squeeze, thought Mr. Eisenhower should have dealt with the farm -problem-in 4 major address here rather than later at Peoria, I]., on Sept. 25. They said so emphatically. They said further that they would lend a sympathetic ear to what Mr. Stevenson would have to Say.

T . > =

“Nonpolitical’ Haymaking

Other farmers thought the President was entirely proper in

choosing to avoid politics. at his major appearance at the plowing contests, where the tone is cus- tomarily nonpolitical,

. There can be no doubt that Mr. Eisenhower enlarged his

audience of sympathetic listen- ers among members of both par- ties and among the independents

\In his frank opening statement

admission at Colfax that, though

‘the farmers might find it diffi-

cult to believe, he had not come to make a political speech,

scarcely anyone present. how- ever, doubted that. despite Mr. Eisenhower’s intention. political advantage could accrue from his reverent mention of the plow as a symbolic instrument of ‘peace and his reference to the Biblical passage in Micah: “And they shall beat their swords into | plowshares.”

Need to Vote Stressed

This political advantage could be won by his expressed interest in the need for soil conservation, impressed upon him by Dr. Mil- ton S. Eisenhower, his younger brother. It could be gained by his identification of himself with his audience with referénée fo his boyhood farm experience. However, some his listeners took friendly technical excep- tion to his including their Mid- west farm country part of the Great Plains region of Kan- Sas, where he was raised.

Mr, Eisenhower, obviously, made most of whatever political hay he accomplished here by just being “Ike,” by ingratiating [himself every moment shaking i|hands with long lines of “preési- dential guests,” presenting ‘awards to sun-bronzed plow champions: visiting exhibit booths in the tents of Conserva- tion City raised for the occasion, in complimenting the musical contribution of the bands, and in , thanking “Miss Furrow Queen” for the bouquet of red roses she presented to. Mrs. Eisenhower. At the airport Mr. Eisenhower, in the presence of Gov. Leo Hoegh (R) and Senator Bourke B. Hickenlooper (R) of Towa, said laughingly that he couldn’t stand being nonpolitical any more, lowa Poll Noted

He then reviewed some of the things he had told the GOP party rally recently at his Gettysburg home, emphasizing the need for getting all Ameri- cans out io yote.

No one will know until No- vember what Mr. Eisenhower’s tremendous reception here will mean in votes. A recent Iowa poll showed him well ahead of Mr. Stevenson in . popularity among all Iowans, but somewhat behind Mr. Stevenson in the - preference of the farmers.

While pleasing many, Mr. Eis- enhower certainly didn’t answer the hopes of some, including the Des Moines Register, which said bluntly that agriculture is in trouble and that Iowa would welcome some new imaginative thinking by both Mr, Eisenhower and Mr, Stevenson on how to adjust farm production and to protect farm income.

Eisenhower speech excerpts:

Page 4.

Ol

asd

Democrat has entered the Re- publican primaries (as Mr. Lane did in 1942 and 1954) and walked away with both nomina- tions, , |

Likened to South |... This_ situation, as the. Bost: Herald pointed out in an edi- |

to the Democratic - dominated | South. The primary is all im- | portant.

But Massachusetts does not have a second primary election or runoff between the two high- est candidates in the first pri- mary. as is done throughout most of the South.

If the seventh district had had a runoff primary, it is pos- sible that Mr. Lane would have succumbed to a united opposi- tion.

The reason there would be no certainty even of this, once again dates back more than a decade. Once in Congress, Mr.

gressmen in Washington. Mr, Lane is adamant in in-

| i that he has “built up a of working assiduously

on behalf of my constituents.”

|\dominance, and occasionally a/|

School Integration

+

_ Blocked in Virginia

The World's Day

National: Assembly Passes Governor’s Plan The Virginia General Assembly has passed Gov. Thomas B. Stan-

The triah ef persons alleged to

viet plane equipped with vo. =

ley’s entire package of legislation to block mixing of the races in any public schoo] of the state.

Europe: Poznan Trial Slated to Begin Sept. 27

have taken part in the Poznan

“We want bread” riots on June 28 will begin Sept. 27. Number of accused has been reduced from 323 to 154.

New England: Kennedy Set to Aid Stevenson

Adlai E, Stevenson's campaign manager, James A. Finnegan, has announced the appointment of Robert F. Kennedy, chief coun- sel of the Senate Permanent Investigations Subcommittee, as a special assistant. Mr. Kennedy is a brother of Senator John F. Kennedy (D) of Massachusetts.

Arctic: Soyiet Plane Rescues Five From Glacier

Five natural scientists, lost almost a week on an Arctic glacier in the desolate Spitzbergen archipelago, were rescued by a So- skis, Th

e men—two Swedes, one

.

Art, Music, Theater: Pages 10

and 11, TV, Radio, FM

=

o - te Pat Se

_THE CHRISTIAN ‘SCIENCE MONITOR, BOSTON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER: 2, 1956

Many Walls Block Probe"

ae

Crime Commission Hainnere!

By Frederick W. Roevekamp Steg Writer of ney general.

The Christian Science Monitor it failed. Twice the courts

There is little doubt that the | threw out the grand jury in-

Massachusetts Crime Commis- | dictments against seven leading

sion has set itself one of the most | police officials, including the

difficult, most unpleasant, and, | then Boston police commission- some say, most necessary tasks er and his superintendent. waiting to be tackled in this | Indictment Quashed

state. In both cases, the indictments

This task is to determine the | . _ | charging conspiracy to permit scope and entrenchment of or oming ware queshed mr

ong on oe gambling, the de: | sroutids other than the actual has failed to cope with it, and to merit of the charges. ‘The first explore the possible remedies.

It may be the last opportunity in many years to break the grip organized crime is believed to have in many. areas on govern- ment and law enforcement.

The last such chance was back | in 1943. It was a bold probe car-

iried on by a reform-bent attor-

Last of a Series on Crime Commission Probe

‘batch of indictments was quashed because of the pres-

son” in the grand jury room.

When the grand jury re- indicted the seven, the indict- | ment against the police com- ‘missioner was quashed on the ground that his official duty | iwas not to enforce the law. ‘His duties, the court ruled, | iwere only those imposed on the ‘Boston Board of Aldermen in 1821. Thus, it was concluded, | he could not be tried for neg- lecting a duty which he never possessed.

As a result of these rulings, | the attorney general withdrew the indictments against the other six officials. Sometime afterward he committed § sui-' cide,

Mission 33235

ence of an “unauthorized per- |

Since then, no similar broad hte «a has been made. Massachusetts was not. visited by the Senator Estes Kefau- ver’s Senate Crime Committee in 1950 for reasons not fully explained.

Meanwhile, crime experts es- timate that anywhere from 10,000 to 50,000 persons di- rectly profit from horse and dog betting operated by crimi- nal syndicates in this state. Total annual turnover of the gambling rackets has been con- servatively estimated at $150,- 000,000 in the state.

In the pursuit of its task to

get to the bottom of the prob- |.

lem. the crime commission

makes few friends. Double Difficulty On the one hand, it faces the

large part of the public which ‘knows little about gambling

land is little concerned because

it does not see excessive vio- ‘lence and gangland warfare. 'That such violence is found primarily

control of criminal syndicates

in areas where the.

is shifting rather than firmly | * Po

established may not be gen-

erally understood.

On the other hand, there are | | the wide circles that

|

regularly and habitually in il- legal gambling at private fairs and clubs and, above § ail,

through the thousands of book-

Chandler s

Tremont and West Streets, Boston

*

=

mn”

.

New purchase and

> & ,

At V3 off their _usuel prices

ne

< Fh

You may budget your purchase

PRICE 13.95 22.95 34.00 59.00

219.00

2'x3’ 2’x4’

mats usually 22.95

Hemeadens usually 36.95

3’x5’ Kerajeahs usually 54.95

4’x7’ Hamadans usually 89.00 91’x11'5” Heriz usually 339.00

Many other Orientals at ‘3 off

All sizes on Oriental Rugs ore approximate

CHANDLER'S RUGS—EIGHTH FLOOR

|

i

;

|

' | ;

|

Mission's

far between.

-given the- Massachusetts for the current year and an ad- 'ditional total of $27,000 during ithe preceding two years.

/countants, | gators.

poses.

ies and emplovees of the number pool and race-betting | syndicates that crowd so many cities and towns.

Among these latter persons,

gambling, whether at the legal-_ | ized race tracks or at the corner | store ‘considered a

bookie and horseroom, is “harmiess” diver- 'sion hampered only by

| critical’ laws. '

Chilly Reception In addition to a public either

unconcerned or hostile, the com- _mission is confronted by an atti- tude of considerable coolness

among cies, This is because the oom- very existence

purpose casts doubts on the effi-

'ciency of these agencies in gen- eral.

Nor is there any large, solid block of crime commission sup- | porters in the Legislature. Last ‘year most legislators appeared

ready to put the commission to a |

quiet end after starving it out of funds for two years. Only a vigorous newspaper

'campaign contrasting the extent

of apparent organized crime

| with indifference of the Legisla-

It year

ture saved the commission. was revived for another with a larger appropriation.

Crime commissions set up by legislatures have been few and | In recent years, such commissions have func- |

tioned with varying degrees of success in New York, California,

and Illinois, in. addition to the federal crime probe under Sen- ator Kefauver.

But there is considerable dif-

ference in resources as well as

specific task between the New

-York State Crime Commission |

and the Bay State commission, | for instance.

New York Comparison The New York commission

carried out a three-year investi- ‘gation of the New York water ‘front with a total of $969,367 in

state appropriations.

Personnel-wise, the contrasts are similar. The New York com- mission had a