Daily Report—

Sub-Saharan Africa

FBIS-AFR-90-217 Thursday 8 November 1990

Daily Report Sub-Saharan Africa

FBIS-AFR-90-217 CONTENTS 8 November 1990

NOTICE TO READERS: An * indicates materia! not disseminated in electronic form.

CENTRAL AFRICA Congo * Nguesso Pressed on Multiparty Reform /Paris LE MONDE 2 Oct] o......c.cccccc0cccesseeseeseeeseeeeneneenr ons l Rwanda Defense Ministry Communique Announces Victory /Kigali RAGiO} ...............ccccccceseeeeeseeeseeseeseoneeee l French Minister Says French Workers To Return [AFP] .............ccccccccscsesessesseseeseeeeeeeseeesneseeneeeenes 2 Front Leader Said Killed by 2nd in Command [AFP] o..............ccccccsscssesesseseeseeseeeeneeeneeneeeencenenensensens 2 Zaire * Huge Budget Deficit Reported; Economy Ruined /ELIMA 14 Sep] ................ eshinendeseneannnaneienn 2 * Paper Decries State of Lawlessness in Kinshasa /ELIMA 15-17 Sep] ...ccccccccccccccoecceeseeseeeeseeeeersnnees 5 * Opposition Reported Ready To Form Government /ELIMA 15-16 O68] oo.c..cccccccc0csecceseeesevees 5 * Yoko Discusses Opposition Stand, Mobutu, Economy /ELIMA 27-28 Sep] o....ccc.ccccccccccsereeeeeereees 7 * Paper Endorses Abolishing Information Ministry /ELIMA 27-28 Sep] o......c..cccccccceceeeseeeeeeees 11 * Government Criticized for Making Wrong Moves /ELIMA 8-9 Oct] oocccccccccccccsccceseeeeeeeeeeee vos 12 EAST AFRICA Kenya President Moi, France’s Pelletier in Talks /Nairobi Radio] .................ccccccccccesceeesseeeeeeeeeeeeeeseeeeeeneneees 15 Former Minister’s Brother Reportedly in U.S. (Nairobi TV] .........ccccc0. cccccscsseeseceeeeseeeeeeeeceeeenereeeneees i$ Somaiia Agriculture Minister on Banditry, Food Supply /Mogadishur RAdi0} o.............cc0ccccccccceceeeeseeneeees sain 15 Rebels Claim 24 Soldiers Defect to SNM Ranks /Radio of Somali National Movement) ............... 15 Reportage on Prime Minister Visit to Saudi Arabia /cross-reference] o...0..0....0..cc0cccceeseeeeeeeeereees 15 Tanzania France's Pelletier Meets President Mwinyi /Dar es Salaam Radio] ......0.0..0....c0ccccceeeseeeeeseereereeeeeseees 16 Zanzibar Nine-Man Electoral Commission Named [Zanzibar RAiO} .......0......cccccccccecseeeeeseeeeereeees 16 Returnees From Kenya Advised to Register /Dar es Salaam Radio} ooo... ...ccccccccceceseceeeseeeseeevereeees 16 Uganda French Cooperation Minister Pelletier Arrives /Kammpala Radio} .............cccc.ccccccccseceseeeesseereesneeeenvens 16 TUR C CECI, | snssnssssssnscsssnsteuppiensnnanscssstinsneenssesssipenmmnieneeiensiien 16 Flute Refugess Reuss Toe Settle WR Twteis [APP] ..........ccccsesccccesccsecsscssessecsscsssescsosecessesersssscssesseees 17 REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA De Kicrk Warns ANC Against Military Buildup /Johannesburg Radio] .................... spenvoneenmnetanhenndembentenis 18 National Party Wins 7 Nov Randburg By-Election /SAPA] .0...............cccccccccssessesesseeseesseeeeserseeeeeeeneeneeneeneees 18 ET TT EEL, titi iscteenniccernentpenmmnesinetenerseumesemneceniesensernenentetesennnteentnnctnstennnnbianemnemneettietts 18 TEE TET TET GHEY §=TMITIIET = cxtecnsocscccqsterqnonsenecssetensoscenccsonecccensencusanencequncseetneseentocssnenseusessnentenesieennseten 19

SP EEE §«TREITE cesnteneccesscerensescorncsennsesesesscsoceseuscunnecnchenescepsnssenensnssnstnsctsoneennsnetbenenaneinesetn 19


8 November 1990 2 Sub-Saharan Africa UK Parliamentarians Meet De Klerk, Du Plessis (Johannesburg Radio) .................s-seveeeeereereereneneneees 19 Vlok Lifts Curfews; Unrest Designations Remain /SAPA] .................ccsscsssseseesesseseeeseseseesenneneneensneecensnseees 19 Schwartz Reacts To Boerestaat Party Statement /SAPA] ...............ccccccecsssseeeseeeseeseeneeseneesensensnenensenensennennenes 20 Winnie Calis For ‘Intensification’ Of Action [SAPA] .......:..0-.ecssssscscsesossessnsssesenssceseseesnsesesessssepesesssscsssesesees 20 Country Begins To ‘Monetise’ Crude Oil Stockpile /BUSINESS DAY 7 Nov] .............c.cscseeseesereeeeneneeees 2! Police Confirm Use of False Plates on Vehicles /BUSINESS DAY 7 Nov] ..............ccssesseseeseeeneeesennnesees 22 I EE, EI sca snsnmsnsnebnnunnnsnnnnnnennanesinneinebintebeinenien 22 ‘Massive’ Power Fatlere Affects Western Cage [SARA] ........00..::ecscscscsscsccssccesessesesesensesssssssessssesonssssssosessees 22 Residents Allege Police Compiicity in Gang Crime /SAPAJ] 2.0...........ccccccccceseseeseeesseseeseeseenensnneeneeenensenennees 23 Bloemfontein Consumer Boycott Lifted 8 Nov /SAPA] ............c.ccccscecsesesseenseeeseesseseesensenseneeneeseeseenensnensnenens 23 NP’s Group Protection Dying ‘Quiet Death’ /THE STAR 7 Now] ...............cccsccesesseseesereverseenensenenennrensnnees 24 8 Nov Press Review on Current Problems, Issues /THE STAR 8 Nov, €10.) -.......-c-ccccscssseseeeeeeeeeesevensnonnes 25 * Parents Complain About ANC Youth Camp /SUNDAY TIMES 14 Oct] ............cccccccsceeeseeeeseseenenenenenees 26 * Ethnic Violence in Factories Worries Unions /THE WEEKLY MAIL 5-11 Oct] .............c.ccsseeeseeeeeeeroes 27 * Formation of Islamic Political Party Announced /SUNDAY TIMES 7 Oct] ..........cc.ccccccsseeesseeeeeeeerevenes 28 * NP Launches Image-Building Campaign /SUNDAY TIMES 14 Oct] ............ccc0.-cccssessesesseeeeeeeeennenennnes 28 * ANC Criticized for Lack of Direction /SUNDAY TIMES 14 Oct] ...........c..ccscssssesssseseseseseeseeeesenenenenenenes 29 Reportage on Nelson Mandela’s Visit to Europe /cross-referemee] ..........2.....0cccccceeseesevseeeereennerseeneeenencnnenenes 29


President Dos Santos Assumes Defense Portfolio /Luanda Radio) ............ seenecenenmigntaigalaine eaieen 30 Refusal To Merge Armies Called ‘Bad Faith’ /Luamda Radio] .................ccccccecesseeerserseeeereneersnnenevees 30 Dos Santos Envoy Meets Bush's Envoy in Lisbon /Luanda Radio] ............c..ccccssseververeenenenenevenes 30 FAPLA Communique Reports UNITA Actions /Luamda Radio) .0.............0.ccc0ccceseeseeseesenseerevnernveeen 30 Sy ED I WO ET ID nncictesincesetescnrertenaieneuuesnanncenmensensnnsnsnenensnemnesnatananeaneteestsete 30 UNITA Urges Resumption of Peace Talks /Voice of the Black Cockrel] ........ccccccccccseeeeseveeeerenes 31 Commentary Views Anniversary With ‘Hope’ [KUP] .............0:.sccoccssscsssscsssssssssssssssessesssosenssossossoseees 32 Soviet Official Lauds Tigs With Republic /Luanda Radio} o..............cccccccceceesessevseeeseeseeveeennnensecncenes 32 Lesotho People Said Unhappy With King’s Dethronement /London International] « eae 33 Mauritius * Major Sectors ‘Vuluerable’ to Higher Prices /5-PLUS 20 Sep] o........cccccccccccsesseeseeeeeeseereeeesereneneeeers 33 * Utchanah Proposes Nuclear Power Plant in 2000 /THE SUN 15 Aug] oo.cccccccccccccccceeccerereenenes 34 Mozambique Minister Discusses Planned Chilean Cooperation /Maputo Radio] .............cccccccccesersereeeeeeneenrernenees 34 Frelimo, Zambian Delegations Meet in Maputo (Maputo Radio] .............0cccccccccecseseeeeseeseereenerseneees 35 Zambian Team Leaves for Sofala (Maputo Radio} .0.....0.0.00.. ccccccecceeeseessssesseseeeereeeneeeecensnencnens 35 Zambia Kaunda Salutes Several African Leaders (Maputo R@did] .............0cccsscscseeeeseeseneesenensenennennrenensnernenes 35 Envisages South Africa in SADCC Johannesburg Radio} 0.0... ....cc00.ccccssessesseseeeeeeersereenenenvenes 35 Dy PUES I FD FID cocanrcnsccnncccccenses: ccccscecaqnosngnosececcsececevsovceccovveconsonsonooneeess 36 Chissano Says Government, Renamo Teams in Rome /Mcputo RAdi0] .........cccesevereeveees 36 People Called on To Choose ‘Principled Leaders’ /Lusaka Radio] ........0..000.cccsssesseserseeenenerevevvnnenes 36 Zimbabwe

Report Det, . —°9 Trade Statistics /THE FINANCIAL GAZETTE 26 Oct] ...ccccccccccccesseeeeeeeeeesvees 37


8 November 1990 3 Sub-Saharan Africa WEST AFRICA Benin * Pitfalls of Democratic Experiment Examined /Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE ECONOMIE Sep) ........ 38 Ivory Coast Houphouet-Boigny Confirmed as President /Abidjam R@dio} .................ccccccceecseeseeeeesonenvnrenennenernnennes 40 I, I accent senemenctiemnciinmanl initial 40 Further Reportage on Assembly Succession Law /Abidjan Radio] ...............0ccccc0c0e00s sintibisinemiiitaiiiiiiie 40 Alassane Ouattara Appointed Prime Mimister [AFP] .............cccccccccccccseeeseeseeseerenensnennrnnnennoes vonieiaiiiaida 41 Prime Ministerial, Speaker Roles Explained /Abidjam Radio} ...0..............ccccccecceeseveeeeneeeevennenrvennnnenes 4! Democracy Said Undermined at Elections (NOUVEL HORIZON 5 NOW] ......c..cccc0ceeeeeveeooreeeevnves 41 Bank Governor on Financial Situation, Devaluation /FRATERNITE MATIN 7 Nov] ...........- 43 Liberia Spriggs Payne Airport Reopened; Medevac Underway [AFP] o....0..........c.00000000 siettinnil asliiaiiiiesiiin 43 Ex-Official Comments on ECOWAS, Doe’s Death /PANA] .........cc.cccccesseeeeseeeenerenenenennens smmmapnannmen 44 Advance Party of Interim Government in Capital /Lagos Radio] isietiaibantenceiagnaiindaiata 44 Niger Five-Day Strike Brings Life to Standstill /London International) .......... scanbocnsnecastneniannaninaenthienptonant 44

FBIS-AFR-90-217 8 November 1990


* Nguesso Pressed on Multiparty Reform 9IAFOIS6A Paris LE MONDE in French 2 Oct 90 p 46

[Article by Catherine Simon, special correspondent in Brazzaville; first paragraph is LE MONDE introduction]

[Text] Meeting in a special session, the central com- mittee of the Congolese Labor Party (PCT) decided on 30 September ‘0 institute a multiparty system “immedi- ately” and to convene a national conference in May or June 1991 to establish a timetable for legislative elec- tions. With that, President Denis Sassou Nguesso will have satisfied those who, for months, have demanded a new beginning for the country’s political process. Addressing the PCT ir late September, the president had reaffirmed that it was a “necessity” for the sole party to orient itself in “new directions” in order to pave the way “toward a multiparty system.” He forgot, however, to specify a date. But that has now been done.

These avoidance tactics were not without risk. By con- tinuing to defer the day of reckoning, in time the Congolese president would have raised doubts about his sincerity. Only three months ago, he made no secret of his desire to confine the debate on pluralism to the ranks of the PCT. But this “lesser evil” scenario was impos- sible to impose. For the first time since he took power in 1979, the president had to loosen his grip—and consid- erably soften his arrogant manner—in order to weather this period of storms.

The first clap of thunder came from tae Christian churches. The ecumenica! council perhaps went farther than the president had wished when he invited it to share its “reflections” on the debates under way within the PCT. In its response on 10 August, the council variously condemned “the widespread abuse of power (members of the party or militia can do as they please),” “thr frenzied race by a minority of the Congolese to enrich themselves,” “tribalism elevated to a managerial method,” the shameless squandering of public funds,“ and the continued existence of the “special police.“ The only point to be greeted “with satisfaction“ by the Christian churches at that time was the “abandonment of Marxism-Leninism.“

The Congolese churches considered it “necessary that the head of state remain above the fray and appear to be less a party leader and more the leader of the entire nation.” This latter demand was asking the president to be an illusionist, a talent he clearly had not yet acquired. The brutality he displayed in breaking up the proceedings of the congress of the Congolese Trade Union Confederation (CSC), the sole labor union, in mid-September and the rapidity with which he gave in to the strikers’ demands less than one week later did not augur well.



The labor movement has traditionally been powerful in the Congo. The first unions, built on the French post-war “models,” came into existence in the early 1950s. In 1964, the labor movement was reined in to form a single confederation under party control. The upheavals in East Europe and the Congo's worsening economic situ- ation no doubt contributed to the CSC's present “dissi- dence.” Low wages (frozen for the past five years), the mediocre performances of state-owned companies, and rising unemployment (particularly among recent univer- sity graduates), heightened the level of impatierce. The plan to lower the retirement age to 50, announced this summer, was the last straw.

After bitter debate, the CSC congress decided to demand its independence from the party and took the position that a national conference should be held “without delay” for the purpose of instituting a multiparty system. President Sassou Nguesso’s fury (he immediately called off the proceedings of the congress) turned to fear as the union members reacted: After four days of a widely supported strike action, the government's number-one man retreated, allowing the union to reconvene its congress and freely elect its top officials.

In any event, the victory of the CSC protesters precipi- tated the birth of a multiparty system. The players in this new game are already in place: the Democratic Forum led by Jean-Pierre Tuystere-Tchicaya (a former minister and member of the central committee “in charge of ideology” from 1972 to 1984); the Social-Democrat Party led by Clement Mierassa (also a former PCT central committee member); the Movement for Democ- racy and Total Development led by Bernard Kolelas; not to mention the openly tribal-sounding Bateke Liberation Front. Some parties, it is said, have already drafted their by-laws but all of them are ready to take up the challenge of political liberalization—a challenge just recently issued by the president in a surprise move.


Defense Ministry Communique Announces Victory EA0711192090 Kigali Domestic Service in French 1115 GMT 7 Nov 90

[Text] According to the National Defense Ministry com- munique issued in the national language Kinyarwanda, the Rwandan Armed Forces won a new victory this morning, but those who escaped the counterattack are heading toward the Kivuye and Butaro communes. All the residents of the region are called on to exercise more vigilar.ce to prevent the enemy’s infiltration. The popu- lation is called on to follow the example of the residents of the Kayonza in the Kibungo Region :n southeastern Rwanda who are being merciless toward the assailants [word indistinct] after their defeat in Kagitumba and /n the Mutara Region.


The communique draws the population's attention to the enemy's trick. Once defeated, he tries to mingle with the residents. The population must understand the dia- bolic aims of the enemy, who, as he passes and until the worst happens to him, indulges in looting and raping.

Finally the National Defense Ministry's communique gives the following information: All of Mutara Region is under our Armed Forces’ control, but tracking down remaining assailants is continuing in Kagera National Park.

French Minister Says French Workers To Return

AB0713132890 Paris AFP in English 1234 GMT 7 Nov 90

[Text] Nairobi, Nov 7 (AFP)}—French workers who were evacuated from Rwanda at the beginning of the civil war will return to their jobs on Monday, the French Minister for Cooperation said here Wednesday. Jacques Pelletier arrived in Africa on Tuesday to gather information on the Rwanda crisis which began on October | when rebels of the Rwandan Patriotic Front invaded the northeast of Rwanda from Uganda. Mr. Pelletier said Kenyan Presi- dent Daniel arap Moi indicated in talks on Wednesday that he would be prepared to participate in a regional conference on the crisis.

“We are seeking to organize a regional conference on the refugees because that is the problem that sparked the conflict,” in Rwanda, Mr. Pelletier said. Hundreds of thousands of Rwandans have lived in exile since the late 1950s when the Hutu majority took power from the minority Tutsis.

Mr. Pelletier held talks on Tuesday in Rwanda with President Juvenal Habyarimana and in Tanzania with President Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Mr. Pelletier said Mr. Mwinyi would be prepared to organize the conference. Mr. Pelletier and the French delegation, which includes Jean-Christophe Mitterrand, the French president's son and special adviser on African affaris, were due to leave Kenya later Wednesday for Uganda to hold talks with President Yoweri Museveni. In the evening, the delega- tion was scheduled to leave Uganda for Burundi to meet that nation’s head of state, Mujor Pierre Buyoya. On Thurday, the delegation will go to Zaire to have discus- sions with President Mobutu Sese Seko before returning to Rwanda for another meeting with Mr. Habyarimana.

Front Leader Said Killed by 2nd in Command

ABO0711155690 Paris AFP in English 1543 GMT 7 Nov 90

[By David Chazan]

[Text] Nairobi, Nov 7 (AFP}—Rwandan rebel leader Fred Rwigyema was ‘Killed by his second-in-command Peter Bayingana, who was himself killed by rebels loyal to Major-General Rwigyema, sources close to the rebels said here Wednesday. The account was confirmed by Western diplomats here. The rebel sources, speaking on

FBIS-AFR-90-217 8 November 1990

condition of anonymity, said Major Bayingana had opposed Maj.-Gen. Rwigyema’s plan to stage a lightning strike on Kigali, the Rwandan capital. Maj. Bayingana wanted to wage a slow guerrilla war to wear down the government of President Juvenal Habyarimana.

The row developed into a fight, and Maj. Bayingana killed the leader of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) on October 3, only two days after the rebels invaded north-east Rwanda from neighbouring Uganda, the sources said. Maj. Bayingana and other rebel com- manders then kept Maj.-Gen. Rwigyema’'s death a secret. It was not announced by the rebels until after Maj. Bayingana himself was killed on October 22 or 23.

The RPF has repeatedly denied reports that Maj.-Gen. Rwigyema was killed by fellow rebels, saying he died in a mine blast near the border post of Kagitumba, where the rebels launched their invasion. But the Rwandan army said no mines were planted near Kagitumba. The rebels announced that Maj. Bayingana died in combat, but the sources <aid he and Major Chris Bunyenyezi, another top rebel commander, were killed by rebels who opposed their leadership and were angered by the death of Maj-Gen. Rwigyema.

“We gave out the story that they had died in battle because we didn't want to undermine morale or publi- cise our internal problems,” said a source close’ the rebels. “But we hope the lesson has been learned. They shouldn't have started arguing before we had even achieved our goal. They should have settled it after we toppled Habyarimana,” the source said, adding that the rebels were now united under their new leader Major Pau) Kagame.

The RPF is led by Rwandan exiles based in Uganda. Most of its fighters are Ugandan army deserters of the Tutsi tribe whose families fled Rwanda amid horrific tribal massacres in the late 1950s, when the majority Hutus seized power from the minority Tutsis, Rwanda’s traditional rulers, in the runup to independence in 1962.


* Huge Budget Deficit Reported; Economy Ruined 9/AF0042B Kinshasa ELIMA in French 14 Sep 90 pp 8-9

{Article by Essolomwa Nkoy ea Linganga: “The Economy: Zaire on the Verge of Bankruptcy”)

[Text] While waiting for the chief of state's press confer- ence, we felt it would be useful to devote a series of articles to the political, economic, and social state of affairs in our country.

In the first commentary, which we published in yester- day's issue and that was entitled “Politics: Why Do They Want To Perpetuate Confusion?,” we first of all alluded to the confusion that Marshal Mobutu is maintaining in

FBIS-AFR-90-217 8 November 1990

the world of politics to throw politics! factions off the track and to leave any competitors little time to act.

We pointed out that, deliberately maintained, this con- fusion may compromise the process of democratization of our political institutions. We also noted that the civief of state does not want to clearly define the rules of tive Gemocratic game and that our new-born demecracy still has a long way to go.

Wf Ad Dut Wt MPR [People’s Movement of the Revolution] between

N’Singa and Vunduawe, we revealed that it is built on the shortcomings of the Second Republic. This reconciliation will also not fail to complicate the Zairian political scene.

The crisis that is rocking the UDPS [Union for Democ- racy and Social Progress], plagued by the demon of divisiveness and corruption, is also of concern to public opinion. Thus, we hoped that Mr. Etienne Tshisekedi would get his colleagues of the founders college to give serious thought to this situation.

In ovr opinion, the public feels that, in order to save our incipient democracy and finally put an end to the confusion, Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko ought to play fair and clearly define his political intentions, promulgate a new law governing the parties, and take into consider- ation the declaration issued by the 40 political parties resulting from the meeting organized on 31 August 1990 at the home of PD‘ C [Christian Democratic and Social Party] chairman [leo Songo Amba.

Following this first article, which was political in nature, in this issue we take up a topic that is just as important, to wit, the economy.

While the uneasiness is total in the country’s political circles, where people are saying that they are deeply concerned over the confusion the chief of state is main- taining in order not to favor the advent of democracy, a process that was set in motion to the great joy of the people of Zaire on 24 April 1990, people are even more uneasy in economic circles, where the situation is worse than catastrophic.

All the indicators have moved into the red. And while many of the vountries in the world have for some time been suffering from the economic crisis and, fortunately for them, they are not dying of it, here in Zaire we have, on the contrary, begun to “die” of it.

To show the full extent of the situation Zaire has been going through for several months now in the economic sec‘or, some informed observers do not refrain from saying that the “virus” has invaded the whole body, which, because of this, is comp'etely defenseless because its resistance has quite simply given up the ghost.

Thus, it is felt that, from the standpoint of the Zairian economy, it is certain that the days to come promise to be even more gloomy.



fraud and a shortage of hard currencies.

Severely condemned for mortgaging all of the country's chances for development and people's chances of pros- pering, this administraiton was marked by a deficit of about 100 billion zaires at the end of August 1990 as against only 20 billion at the end of April of this year, that is, immedi- ately after the liberalization of Zairian politics.

When we are aware that a deficit of only 50 billion zaires for fiscal year 1990 was anticipated in the revised budget, there is good reaso.» to sound the alarm and take a pessimistic view of the future.

As for the zaire, our currency unit, it has not stopped its downward spiral, which is not yet over. One of the best indices of the soundness of our economy, it has been suffering an unprecedented decline with a rate of depre- ciation of over 10 percent a month on the unofficial market since April 1990.

As concerns the exchange rat< for the dollar, it must be noted that it has gone from 600 to 900 zaires on this market in four months time and that the gap between this and the official rate has exceeded 50 pe-cent, com- pared to a 10-percent goal set in the budget.

Furthermore, the of hard currencies and the poor condition of the roads has led to a glaring shortage of the basic necessities and a rise in the cost of fuel. As for the inflation rate, which was accelerated particularly as a result of the abusive use of banknote engraving plates, it was in the neighborhood of 60 percent at the end of August 1990, compared to a 30-percent goal for the year and the 56 percent it rose to in 1989.

For those observers who very closely follow the—to say the least disturbing—progress of the Zairian economy, the big deficit incurred at the end of August—or about 100 billion zaires—would have been understandable if the funds spent had been earmarked for investment expenditures or the financing of social infrastructures. Unfortunately, this is not the case and, as is the nasty habit of our leaders, the bulk of the expenditures realized during the past 4 months are at the very least unproduc- tive since they involve politics and nongovernmental purposes, and therefore do not in any way serve the growth of our country’s economy and the interests of the

people of Zaire.

Moreover, it is no secret to anyone that last February the World Bank stigmatized the misallocation of funds to


the detrir _*: vf the production sectors and the disin- vestment of GECAMINES [General Quarries and Mines Company}.

Freezing of Zairian Economy

In light of all these factors, there is only one thing we can expect: The Zairian economy is very soon going to come to a halt due to the spirai of “the drop in production and in exports and imports, shortage of hard currencies, drop in tax and customs revenue, general rise in prices, and the population's loss of purchasing power.”

Blind piloting of the Zairian economy, lack of budgetary discipline on the part of the authorities who do not conceal their allergy to sound procedures, financial fraud, repeated tapping of the national budget for non- governmental expenses and for purposes of prestigy, a notorious inability to control economic parameters, imbalances at all levels, galloping inflation, pernicious distortions of tax systems, prices, interest rates and exchange rates, the nonexistence of a production incen- tive policy, deterioration of all basic infrastructures: This is the sad picture the Zairian economy has pre- sented for several months now.

A moribund economy like our country’s—whose human and material potentials do not predispose it, as national and international public opinion as well as financial organizations like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund maintain it does, to such a miserable fate—can only have disastrous consequences for the labor sector of the country has a whole. This explains the explosive labor situation Zaire has been going through these past few months with an unprecedented wave of strikes and workers who are demanding a sizable improvement in their living conditions, which are para- doxically below the poverty level.

Whether it be in the urban centers or in the back country, the Zairians, who are no longer willing to accept and tolerate more sacrifices and privations, have tremendous difficulty in surviving. These people who have been unable to lead a normal existence for 15 years now.

With a policy like the one developed by the transitional government, one that does not properly take into account the needs of the population, it is not surprising to see health, education, housing, transportation, and communications—aefter all priority sectors—constantly deteriorating.

In fact, as we have been aware for nearly 25 years, Zaire has not yet established an adequate health policy. Aside from the completely dilapidated state they are in, the medical facilities, which only cover an infinitesimal portion of the country, are without medicines, drugs, and medical equipment. In most cases, medical and para- medical personnel work under barely believable condi- tions that take us back to primordial times. “ndemic epidemics are cesurfacing to the great detriment of the local popula..icns, who have no means of prote ting themselves.

FBIS-AFR-90-217 8 November 1990

What we are complaining about in the health sector can also be seen in the education, housing, and communica- tions sectors, where the conditions of the premises reflect a pitiful situation.

In plain language, up to now little has been done to protect and concretely encourage indispensable expenditures for social sectors like health, education, housing, etc. fur the purpose of improving people's standard of living.

Se What Can We Do To Avoid Ruin?

As all sensible persons are recommending, particularly our foreign partners, Zaire ought to immediately reach agreement with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on a program. This is all the more true since these two financial institutions for the moment constitute the only framework that is capable of enabling us to restore discipline to the execution of the budget, the allocation of funds for investments in production and the social sectors, and the efficient staffing of public companies through program contracts.

At the same time, it is also imperative that we establish openness in the management of the Bank of Zaire. As we have incessantly emphasized in our commentaries, our issuing bank must be placed under government control. This is a basic consideration inasmuch as any national bank operates under the supervition of the ministry of finance, not the president's, as 1s the case with us.

The Zairian economy being what it is today, all sectors are of the opinion tha: the gov~ament—if it really wants to reverse the present tendencies and save the country from ruin—must make a sourageous choice: that of resuming our association with the Internationa! Mone- tary Fund and the World Bank. There is no other way likely to enable us to go from an economy weighed down with imbalances to one that is capable of favoring lasting growth and that will not crumble at the slightest shock. Since this is a matter of attacking the problem at its roots, there are good reasons for us to avoid all the ineffective approaches of the past, which end in catas- trop ves. Similarly, macroeconomic messes must be clim- inated and, in like manner too, mechanisms that can help to correct imbalances in the balance of payments, ensure internal financial stability, reduce the public finance deficit, adopt monetary measures aimed at pro- duction, encourage competition and private initiative, and eliminate distortions in the tax, customs duty, etc. sectors must be established.

It is only in this way that we can succeed in restoring the Zairian economy to a sound basis and, consequently, saving the people from poverty and its aftereffects.

But, while some people believe that the economy has not yet failed and that the chief of state still has a few aces up his sleeve to save the country from ruin, in opposition circles people think that the Zairian economy's image cannot be changed in the present context and that these challenges appear to be difficult, even impossible to deal

FBIS-AFR-90-217 8 November 1990

with. Because they maintain tha: “Marshal Mobutu's authority lacks political determination.”

Here at ELIMA, we feel that, if he really wants to save the boat from shipwreck, the president of the republic ought to do violence to his own feelings and surround himself with capable men for whom the naitonal interest takes prece- dence over everything cise. Which amounts to saying that the choice of his collaborators must be determined solely on the basis of a fundamental criterion: merit. Only competence and moral integrity should be given access to the great administrative responsibilities.

At stake is the country’s economic and social future, which—as we pointed out above—does not seem to us to be very bright. Especially when we are aware that the reports we receive nowadays from the financial and banking sectors are not very comforting and they give us a glimpse of a tomorrow that is not at all pleasant for Zaire, which may find itself smothered. Due to the fact that the international financial institutions are in no hurry to provide our country—for weli-known reasons-— with their financial assistance between now and the end of the year. This is tantamount to saying that Zaire has not finished suffering.

(To be continued.)

* Paper Decries State of Lawlessness in Kinshasa

914F0042A Kinshasa ELIMA in French 15-17 Sep 90 p 7

[Editorial: “Total Insecurity in Kinshasa; Two Generals Hold Foreign Bus’ aessmen for Ransom”)

[Text] Foreign businessmen established in Kinshasa are currently the victims of harassment by some members of the Zairian Armed Forces (FAZ).

It has in fact come to our attention that two generals have for some time now been supporting night search operations in the homes and stores of these businessmen.

The pretext given for seizing their property is that “we are looking for banknotes that are being hoarded and for seditious documents that may link these foreigners to opponents of the regime.”

But in reality these are acts of intimidation calculated to swindle them out of large sums of money for the benefit of these two generals, whose names we are withholding for the time being.

According to the information we have, six foreign busi- nessmen have already received visits from these “shame commandos.” For obvious security reasons, however, we refrain from divulging their identities.

At this rate, it is to be feared that, after finishing with the businessmen, these individuals may next attack political leaders and those whom they pompously describe as “opponents of the regime.”


The reader may remember that, in one of its commentanes, our newspaper had called to the attention of the minister of defense—a young off.cer whc has had an exemplary military career—acts perpeti ated by undisciplined members of the FAZ who are terroriaing the populace.

In our opinion, it is beyond any doubt urgent that the minister of defense and FAZ leaders take practical steps to rid the ranks of our valiant, well-liked Army of these

black sheep.

* Opposition Reported Ready To Form Government

91AF0133B Kinshasa ELIMA in French 15-16 Oct 90 p 9

[Statement released by Zairian opposition parties, PDSC (Christian Democrat and Social Party), RDR (Demo- cratic Rally for the Republic), MNC/L (Lumumba Coa- golese National Movement), UFERI (Union of Federal- ists and Independent Republicans), PADDECOM (expansion unknown), and Cartel: “Opposition Parties State They Are Ready To Form a Neutral, Responsibie, and Representative Transitional Government™]

[Text] Just a few days after the decision made by the head of state to put Zaire on the road to an integral multiparty system, the opposition parties, signatories of the statement of 31 August 1990, met on 11-12 October 1990 to ‘eview the country’s economic, social, and political situation in the wake of the decisions made public by the government on Saturday 6 October 1990. This is the joint »».ement that resulted from this meeting.

In fact, it was observed that the country’s political situation, which had been at a standstill since 24 April 1990, had progressed in the democratization process through:

—the establishment of an integral multiparty system, the main consequence of which is the removal of the limitation of the number of parties to three and that of primary elections.

—access of political parties to the official media (radio and television), thus two of the opposition’s basic demands are met.

The political parties have noted these decisions. Never- theless, they point out, in particular, the lack of precise indications concerning the constitution to be submitted to the referendum and the election schedule.

In fact, submitting the constitution to the people's refer- endum implies in the first place that a constitution is drafted. And the constitution will have to reflect new political orientations that must be consistent with an integral multiparty system: nature of the republic's insti- tutions, their prerogatives, parliamentary system (one or two houses), mandates of the president of the republic and elected officials, relations between higher and lower political institutions, organization of the state (central- ized, decentralized, or federal), economic and social choices, etc.


This is why the politica! parties in the opposition recall their other demands, contained in their statemcnt of 31 August 1990, and on which the government has remained silent, in particular:

1. Immediate convening of a national conference of all political parties and the nation’s live forces, including the students, the army, and religious bodies, whose mission will be, in particclec

a) To determine the basic options of the third republic.

b) To set up a commission responsible for drafting the new constitution of a neutral, responsib\e, and represen- tative transitional government. Thé« present government is at the service of the MPR. Also, in order to speed up the democratization process and to foster a climate of serenity in the country and confidence toward Zaire’s foreign partners, such a climate being likely to stop the present economic and social degradation, which ruins the people, the political parties in the opposition would be inclined to form a neutral, responsible, and represen- tative transitional government, following a preliminary revision of the cunstitution’s provisions concerning the government's prerogatives, which make the prime min- ister the true head of the executive branch.

This government must, alone, take full responsibility for the management of state affairs, replacing in this the president of the republic and conivary to what is the case with the present government. It must be given the mission to convene the National Conference.

[point c text missing in original]

d) To create a technical commission in charge of auditing the management of the Bank of Zaire, the companies belonging to the GECAMINES group [Gen- eral Quarries and Mines Company], the MIBA [Bak- wanga Mining Company}, and other public and semip- ublic companies, with the obvious purpose of instituting management transparency and the reconstitution of national assets. ¢) To ensure the immediate departure of governors and territory administration officials issued from the MPR, and their replacement by a neutral administration.

2. Dissolution of the National Assembly and all deliber- ative bodies, like all other bodies issued from the MPR party-state.

Actually, in spite of the change announced on 24 April 1990, most of the officials elected by the people at the national as well as at the regional and local levels, moved by corruption and other pressures that benumb their conscience, have done all they could to defend the cause of the MPR instead of serving the people's interests, thus making a mockery of their dignities and prostituting their institutions.

We must hope that they have drawn all the consequences of the bitter lesson given to them by the presidential decision of 6 October 1990 in favor of an integral multiparty system.

The people categorically rejected the single-party polit- ical system, which has been a resounding failure in Zaire. The people chose true democracy, which translates into a multiparty system.

FBIS-AFk-90-217 8 November 1990

Elected officials must comply with the people's wil! to deserve well of the country. Only then can they meet the expectations of the people whom they must represent with dignity, and only then can political parties be willing to trust them again.

3. Implementation of the following measures:

a) A general amnesty in favor of all political prisoners and exiles.

b. Moral compensation for members of the armed forces, civil servants, and magistrates who were dismissed for political reasons, pending equitable reparation.

4. Continuation of the investigation on the Lubumbashi massacre in a more independent context, and punish- ment of the culprits after a public trial.

The organization of the national conference is the man- datory and unavoidable path which, thanks to the national consensus, will make it possible to complete the successive steps of the democratization process in a rapid and harmonious manner, and to pull the country out of confusion and a disastrous position. The political parties in the opposition note with regret that the presi- dent of the republic seems more concerned by the question of the “presidential seat" than by essential problems affecting the life of the nation. They pay a deserved homage to the Zairian people, to the leaders of all political parties in the opposition, to officials of the Catholic ard Protestant churches, to the national written press, to civil servants, to university and school teachers, to doctors and medical personnel, to students and schoolchildren, to farmers, to tradeswomen, to taxi and taxi-bus drivers, and to all of the country's live forces, whose determination made possi! the victory obtained on 6 October 1990.

They isvite all the Zainix: people to overcome their fear and mobilize full; for the present struggle until the advent of a truly democratic regime that will improve their lot.

This statement made public in Kinshasa on | 4 October 1990.

For the Christian Democrat and Social Party, PDSC, Joseph Iieo Songo Amba, National Chairman

For the Democratic Rally for the Republic, RDR, Ber- nardin Mungul-Diaka, National Chairman

For the A... YC/L, Mabika Kalanda, General Adviser

For the Union of Federalists and Independent Republi- cans, UFERI, Adolf Kishwe, National Vice C'sairman

For the PADDECOM, T. Mwananteba

For the Cartel: Yoko Yakembe, spokesman


8 November 1990 CENTRAL AFRICA 7

* Yoko Discusses Opposition Stand, Mobutu, Economy

91AF0084B Kinshasa ELIMA in French 27-28 Sep 90 pp 8-9

[Interview with Yoko Yakembe, chairman of the Demo- cratic Convention for Development and spokesman for the opposition cartel, by Lutete and Kongo; date and place not given, first five paragraphs are ELIMA introduction]

[Text] “We say no to the arbitrariness that the chief of State wants to establish. We refuse to comply with the law on political parties because it is a law that is for the Zairian people.” That was how Yoko Yakembe, chairman of the Democratic Convention for Develop- ment and spokesman for the cartel of opposition parties, began the interview, which he very kindly granted to us in Binza last Sunday. That interview took place a few days after the chief of state's press conference in Goma on 14 September 1990 and three weeks before publica- tion of the list of approved political parties.

During the interview, Yoko reaffirmed che stand taken by the cartel of opposition parties in response to the president of the republic's press conference He used the interview to discuss probiems related to the national conference and the setting up of a government of public salvation that is io oversee the transition from the Second to the Third Republic.

He also took the opportunity to emphasize that the chief of state does not have the power to dictate the life of the political parties and that it is the people who, having regained their sovereignty, have the right to approve political parties. In Yoko's opinion, the chief of state has in effect resigned because he himself dissolved the Second Republic. Since he has relinquished his main function as chairman of the MPR [People’s Movement of the Revolution}, he can no longer exercise his sec- ondary functions as president of the republic.

Nor did the country's economic and social situation escape Yoko's attention. He pointed out that failure to assist a country in danger is more than a crime and that the chief of State must, as a patriot, assume his responsibilities by entrusting the government to the opposition cartel, which is faced with a challenge it must accept so that the Zairian people can live in a truly democratic society and be able to open up new prospects for themselvei.

All of that is discussed in the interview that we are publishing here in its entirety.

{[ELIMA] Public opinion is continuing to react in various ways to the press conference given by the chief of state in Goma last 14 September. What does your cartel think of

it, especially since we are onl a few days away from publication of the list of approved political parties?

[Yoko] You must be aware that the chief of state's press conference attracted the attention of the political pariies belonging to the cartel. We reacted in three ways. First,

we were deeply disappointed by the fact that the presi- dent of the republic did not announce any measures for halting the country’s deterioration at all levels. Second, we were terribly disturbed to note a lack of perspective in Mobutu's thinking, considering that Zaire’s 35 million people are still relying on him for their existence and the satisfaction of their basic needs. Third, we affirm our determination tc take over in the name of our people in order to guarantee them decent living conditions.

In any case, we have realized that the rulers of the Second Republic are too tired to continue to lead our people, who must not continue tc live in poverty.

Neutral Government of Public Salvation Needed

That is why we are recommending the speedy establish- ment of a government of public salvation consisting of about 10 prominent figures to help the country recover and to help the oeople form ncw hopes for the months and years to come.

It is also necessary that the national confercnce be summoned as soon as possible. It will enable us to form a national consensus on the democratic institutions needing to be set up and to establish an election time- table conforming to the people's aspirations. That national conference must be summoned by the chief of state, because calling such a meeting is a routine matter. And the chief of state, who has stepped down as chairman of the MPR, the chief function by virtue of which he has been Zaire's president of the republic since 24 April 1990, has in effect resigned. Since 24 April 1990, he has been in charge of routine matters. But as far as the officers for the national conference, its makeup, its internal by-laws, and its agenda are concerned, all of that is entirely up to the conference of political parties. It 1s the latter chat constitute legitimacy. The chief of state no longer has legitimacy. He himself has dissolved the MPR, the party-state, and the Second Republic.

For our part, we are going to meet at the conference of political parties. After that, we will inform the chief of state of everything that is decided regarding the officers for the national conference, its makeup, its agenda, and $0 on so that the national conference, v hich is an urgent necessity at